Luther and the German Reformation by Thomas M. Lindsay

Thomas Martin Lindsay [1843-1914], Luther and The German ReformationThis life of Martin Luther has been reprinted numerous times, which is testimony to its enduring value. This title is in the public domain.

Thomas Martin Lindsay [1843-1914], Luther and The German Reformation. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1900. Hbk. pp.300. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Introduction
  2. Lutehr’s Childhood and Education, 1483-1505
  3. The Years of Preparation, 1505-1517
  4. Indulgence Controversy, 1517-1519
  5. The Three Great Reformation Treatises, 1520
  6. At the Diet of Worms, 1521
  7. In the Wartburg. From 4th 1521 to 3rd 1522
  8. The Progress of the Reformation, 1522-1525
  9. Political and Social Revolts, 1522-1525
  10. Marriage, Family and Public Life
  11. Laying the Foundations of the Evangelical Church
  12. The Last Years of Luther’s Life
  • Chronological Summary
  • List of Books Consulted
  • Index

Preface

Although Luther’s life has been written scores of times, it has always seemed to me that there is room for another – for one which will be careful to set Luther in the environment of the common social life of his time. For it is often forgotten that the sixteenth century, in which he was the most outstanding figure, saw the beginnings of our present social life in almost everything, from our way of looking at politics and our modes of trade to our underclothing. To show what that life was, and to show Luther in it, would, it seems to me, bring him nearer us than has yet been done.

I do not for a moment pretend that this little book is even a sketch of the Reformer’s life written in this way. That needed far more space than was permitted. Yet I have had the thought before me in writing, and for that reason have been careful to make as much use as possible of contemporary evidence….

 

Story of the Scottish Covenanters by James D. Douglas

James Dixon Douglas [1922-2003], Light in the North. The Story of the Scottish CovenantersDr. James D. Douglas’s contribution to the Paternoster Church History series on the Story of the Scottish Covenanters has never been reprinted. The digital rights were never transferred to the Publisher and, despite extensive inquiries, I have been unable to trace the author’s literary executor. I have decided, therefore, to go ahead and place this volume on-line in the hope that anyone who has any knowledge of the copyright holder would make contact with me.

James Dixon Douglas [1922-2003], Light in the North. The Story of the Scottish Covenanters. Exeter: The Paternoster Press, 1964. Hbk. pp.220. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  1. Introduction
  2. The Church Under Charles I
  3. The Early Covananting Writers
  4. Developments the Commonwealth
  5. The Restoration and the First Martyrs
  6. Presbyterianism Outlawed
  7. The First Revolt
  8. The First and Second Indulgences
  9. The Second Revolt
  10. The Killing Time
  11. The Revolution Settlement
  12. Covenanters Overseas
  13. Conclusion

Appendix

  1. The King’s Confession, 1580 [1581]
  2. The National Covenant, 1638
  3. The Solemn League and Covenant, 1643
  4. Oath Required by the Test Act, 1681
  • Bibliography
  • Index

From the Dustjacket

The Story of the Scottish Covenanters has a significance far beyond that of a local squabble in a provincial backwater in the seventeenth century. Limited though it was in space and time, it focussed attention upon a crucial issue which the Christian Church has had to face thoughout its history, and which is as acute today as ever it was.

That issue, as anotehr Scottish historian, Dr. Stuart Walker, has shown in The Growing Storm, the second volume in the Paternoster Church history, was not he question as to whcih form of Church order and government was the most apostolic – episcopacy, presbytery, independency, or any other form. The issue in the so-called “Dark Ages”, as in seventeenth century England and Scotland, was nothing less than the Crown Rights of Christ the Redeemer to be King of His people, Master of His household, and Lord of His Church. On that rock the mediaeval papacy foundered; that same rock was to bring shipwreck to Mary Queen of Scots and Charles I, to cost James II his throne, and to shatter the Stuart dynasty.

This issue Dr. Douglas keeps clearly before him in this timely and important book. Here is no fulsome adulation of the Covenanters, as if they had no faults. Still less as they written off as ignorant meddlers in matters too high for them, or pig-headed obscurantists refusing to face facts. Both sides are painted “warts and all”, and in the light of the principle that was at stake the protagonists on both sides are revealed as the men they were and are remembered for the work they did.

Luther and Reformation by James Atkinson

James Atkinson, The Great Light. Luther and Reformation.

James Atkinson’s masterly analysis of Martin Luther’s role in the Reformation is volume 4 in the Paternoster Church History series, edited by F.F. Bruce. It also covers Calvin, Zwingli, Henry VIII, Edward VI,. Mary Tudor and Elizabeth I.

The Paternoster Press has never held the digital rights for this title. All reasonable efforts have been made to contact the current copyright holder without success. If you hold the rights or know who does, please contact me.

James Atkinson, The Great Light. Luther and Reformation. The Paternoster Church History, Vol. IV. Exeter: The Paternoster Press, 1968. PHbk. ISBN: 085364084X. pp.287. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Luther’s Discovery of Evangelical Theology
  2. Luther Teaches Evangelical Theology
  3. The Papacy Repudiates Evangelical Theology
  4. Luther Faces the Problems of the Reformation
  5. Luther’s Reconstruction of the Church in Saxony on Evangelical Principles, 1525-32
  6. Developments to the Death of Charles V, 1532-58
  7. Zwingli and His Background
  8. The Reformation in Switzerland
  9. Calvin’s Life and Work
  10. Calvin’s Theology
  11. The Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47
  12. The Reign of Edward VI, 1547-53
  13. The Marian Reaction, 1553-8
  14. Scotland: Saviour of the Reformation
  15. Elizabeth, 1558-1603
  16. The Church Under Elizabeth
  • Chronological Tables
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Preface

The Reformation has a significance that is permanent, for in that century the Reformers everywhere in Europe challenged a faithless, secularized Church with the authority of the original Gospel, a challenge that is relevant at all times and in all places to both Protestant and Catholic alike. This volume deals with Luther’ s fruitless struggle to find a gracious God, through which agony God found him; his consequent reformation of the Church by this rediscovered evangelical theology of faith in Christ only; his stand against Pope and Emperor on the unshakeable ground of the Bible, conscience and common sense; his establishment of the evangelical Church in Saxony. There is recounted the brief, tragic history of Zwingli, and his somewhat Erasmian reformation of Zürich and the surrounding region….

Philip Melanchthon by George Wilson

George Wilson [d.1897], Philip Melanchthon 1497-1560.This short work on the life of Philip Melanchthon was the last written by George Wilson [1840-1897], who sadly died before the book was published. It contains a number of excellent prints which I am making available at different resolutions. My thanks to Book Aid for making available a copy of this book for scanning. This title is in the public domain.

George Wilson [d.1897], Philip Melanchthon 1497-1560. London: Religious Tract Society, 1897. Hbk. pp.159. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Editor’s Preface
  1. Memories of Childhood
  2. Heidelberg
  3. Tübingen
  4. Early Years in Wittenberg
  5. In Wittenberg – Luther’s Death
  6. Later Years in Wittenberg
  7. Philip Melanchthon at Home
  8. The Sunset
  9. Melanchthon’s Library
  • Index

Chapter 1: Memories of Childhood

When some pensive hour in later life, the thoughts of Philip Melanchthon would turn from his Wittenberg study to the days when he was a child, they led him, in imaginative memory, to a little town near the valley of the Rhine. A pleasant little town, reposing independently on its hilly slopes, and surrounded by vineyards and cultivated fields. The burghers are moving about the streets or standing at their doors in the sun ; there are children here and there ; and never long out of sight two or three comfortable ecclesiastics. The town has a serviceable wall round it, which more than once has been honourably defended. Within it and among the houses are open spaces and gardens; and, through the gates looking towards the country, there are glimpses of wooded hills. In all respects a place where honest labour seems ever alternating with rest ; while, in visions of · memory, a warm sunshine seems to fold it in the stillness of a dream….

English Bible Under the Tudor Sovereigns

Pulpit Bible

This book was written as part of the celebration of the Fourth Centenary of the “setting up” of th English Bible in Parish Churches. “Setting up” refers to the placing from 1538 of a large vernacular Bible in every parish church so that anyone who could read could have access to it. W.T. Whitley traces the history of English Bible and translators through the Tudor period. This title is in the public domain.

W.T. Whitley [1861-1947], The English Bible Under the Tudor Sovereigns. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, n.d. Hbk. pp.127. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

I. Erasmus and His Double Testament
II. The Wycliffite Versions
II. Tyndale: The Translator
IV. Coverdale: Editor of the First English Bible
V. Matthew: The First Licensed for Reading
VI. Taverner: Official Reviser
VII. The First Authorized Version
VIII. The Bible in Daily Worship
IX. The Family Bible and the Church Bible
X. The Douay Bible, for the Old School
XI. Thus Far, and Farther

Preface

The following pages are based on direct study of early Bibles, begun a generation ago. At least one copy of every first edition has been examined. Reprints of most are on the author’s shelves. A deliberate re-interpretation of some persons and episodes will be found.

It is intended to commemorate the royal order of September 1538, that a Bible of the largest size be placed in every church. A national committee regards this Injunction as crucial in inaugurating the Reformation in England, and it proposes to celebrate the four-hundredth anniversary. In preparation, several pamphlets and books have been chosen, others have been revised, others are being written. This is the first to appear.

Attention is drawn here especially to Thomas Matthew’s edition of 1537 for several reasons. First, because the editor was the first to give his name openly, a sign that in 1537 public opinion no longer compelled anonymity….

Merle d’Aubigné’s History of the Reformation Vols. 1-5

Jean-Henri Merle d'Aubigné (16 August 1794 – 21 October 1872)
Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné (16 August 1794 – 21 October 1872). Artist unknown – Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, No. 270, November, 1872., Public Domain. Source: Wikipedia

Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné (16 August 1794 – 21 October 1872) was a Swiss historian of the Reformation, His writings reflect the thoroughness of his research and some are still in-print today. This title is in the public domain.

Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné [1794-1872], History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, Vols. 1-5. London: Religious Tract Society, 1846[?]. Hbk. pp.867. [Click to visit the download page for this book]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. State of Europe Before the Reformation
  2. The Youth, Conversion, and Early Labours of Luther – 1483-1517
  3. The Indulgences and trh Theses – 1517 – May 1518
  4. Luther Before the Legate – May to December 1518
  5. The Liepsic Disputation – 1519
  6. The Papal Bull – 1520
  7. The Diet of Worms – 1521, January to May
  8. The Swiss. 1484-1522
  9. First Reforms – 1521 and 1522
  10. Agitation, Reverses, and Progress. 1522-1526
  11. Switzerland – Germany. 1523-1527
  12. The French. 1500-1526
  13. The Protest and the Conference. 1526-1529
  14. The Augsberg Confession – 1530
  15. Switzerland – Conquests. 1526-1530
  16. Switzerland – Catastrophe. 1528-1531
  17. England Before the Reformation
  18. The Revival of the Church
  19. The English New Testament and the Court of Rome
  20. The Two Divorces

Preface

I have been often requested to publish an English Edition of the first three volumes, of my History of the Reformation, carefully revised and corrected by myself, and which might thus become a Standard Edition in Great Britain.

I have acknowledged the necessity of this task. In fact, without overlooking the merit of the different English translations of this work; even the best, I am compelled to· say, have failed in conveying my thoughts in several passages; and in some cases this inaccuracy has been of serious consequence. I will mention one instance.

At the end of the year 1844, I received several letters from the United States, in-forming me that, besides 75,000 copies of my History put in circulation by different American booksellers. The American Tract Society had printed an edition of 24,000 copies, which they sold through the instrumentality of more than a hundred hawkers (colporteurs), principally in the New Settlements….

Wayside Sketches in Ecclesiastical History. 9 Lectures by Charles Bigg

John Wycliffe, subject of Ecclsiastical History Lecture 5
John Wycliffe, subject of Ecclsiastical History Lecture 5. Image from William Henry Beckett [1847-1901], The English Reformation of the Sixteenth Century with Chapters on Monastic England, and the Wycliffite Reformation. London: The Religious Tract Society, 1890. Hbk. p.63.
Professor Bigg’s nine lectures on various aspects of ecclesiastical history were given a different times and to different audiences, Nevertheless, but he sees the common thread of the development of the church running through them. This title is in the public domain.

Charles Bigg [1840–1908], Wayside Sketches in Ecclesiastical History. Nine Lectures with Notes and Preface. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1906. Hbk. pp.230. [Click to visit the download page for this volume]

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  1. Prudentius
  2. Paulinus of Nola
  3. Sidonius Apollinaris
  4. Grossteste
  5. Wycliffe
  6. A Kempis
  7. The English Reformation – I
  8. The English Reformation – II
  9. The English Reformation – III

Wycliffe

One of the most notable events of the fourteenth century was the removal of the papacy from Rome to Avignon. It lasted from 1305 to 1378, and was followed by the Great Schism, from 1378 to 1414, during which there were two rival popes, one at Rome, the other at Avignon.

Avignon was in France though not of it. The city belonged to the King of Naples, who was also Count of Provence. The choice of this place of exile was determined by the struggle between Philip IV. of France and Boniface VIII., and this struggle was the direct result of the new temporal sovereignty of the Pope. Crushed between two formidable rivals, the Emperor and the King of France, the Pope put himself under the protection of the latter, and by this act became the bishop in the French political game of chess…

English Reformation of the Sixteenth Century by W.H. Beckett

William Henry Beckett [1847-1901], The English Reformation of the Sixteenth Century with Chapters on Monastic England, and the Wycliffite ReformationWilliam Henry Beckett [1847-1901] intended this book to be a sketch of the history of the English reformation. He covers John Wycliffe and the Lollards, the Oxford reformers and progress of the movement under Edward VI, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth I. This volume contains numerous portraits which I have made available at various resolutions. This title is in the public domain.

William Henry Beckett [1847-1901], The English Reformation of the Sixteenth Century with Chapters on Monastic England, and the Wycliffite Reformation. London: The Religious Tract Society, 1890. Hbk. pp.312. [Click to visit the main download page]

Contents

  • Introduction
    1. Destruction of Monasteries
    2. Attempts at Reformation
    3. Advance in Monastic Reform
    4. The Institution of the Friars, a Further Advance in Reform
    5. Bishops and Parochial Clergy
    6. The Spiritual Awakening
    7. The Great Plague and its Consequences
    8. The England of Wycliffe’s Days
    9. John Wycliffe
    10. The Early Followers of Wycliffe, or Lollards
    11. Lollard Literature
    12. The Later Lollards
    13. Oxford Reformers
    14. Contemporaries at Cambridge
    15. The Reformation Parliament and Convocation 1529-1536
    16. Reform of Doctrine
    17. Early Reformation Literature
    18. The Protectorate, 1547-1553
    19. Reformation Liturgies and Manuals of Spiritual Instruction, 1534-1553
    20. Reformation Preachers
    21. The Dark Days of Mary
    22. The Triumph of Spanish Policy, 1555-1558
    23. The Elizabethan Compromise
    24. Doctrines of the English Reformation
    25. ‘The Romanist Martyrs’
  • Chonological Summary
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Appendix III
  • Appendix IV

Introduction

When on the 29th day of April, in the year 1509, the young Prince Henry Tudor, at the ago of eighteen, succeeded to the throne left vacant by the death of his father, Henry VII., the country of which he became monarch was already in a transition state. ‘Old things were passing away, and the faith and the life of ten centuries were dissolving like a dream. Chivalry was dying, the abbey and the castle were soon together to crumble into ruins, and all the forms, desires, beliefs, convictions 0£ the old world were passing away, never to return.’ Had Henry VIII. never reigned, there would have been a history of religious reform in England. The notorious divorce question did but confirm and hasten tendencies which were already at work. [Continue reading]

Three Articles by T.H.L. Parker on John Calvin

John CalvinThomas Henry Louis Parker [1916-2016] taught for many years at the University of Durham and was a world-renowned expert on John Calvin. In 2013 I gained his permission to digitise his articles from Evangelical Quarterly.

This is what Dr Parker wrote:

Thank you for your email about the Evangelical Quarterly articles. My word! this is going back a year or two, but I well remember writing the first two, when I was in my twenties and trying to find my literary feet. The third was a paper I gave at  a conference [IVF of some sort] in Cambridge, in the company of various interesting figures – F.F. Bruce I remember and of course my great friend David Knox [Broughton in Australia].

Certainly you may have my permission to put them on line. Very gratifying, after all this time. But you must remember that I was then even more ignorant than now – although I think that I was on the right lines, walking as I did in the steps of Peter Barth and his more famous brother.

Here are the three articles, all downloadable as PDFs.

T.H.L. Parker, “The Approach to Calvin,” The Evangelical Quarterly 16.3 (July 1944): 165-172.

T.H.L. Parker, “A Bibliography and Survey of the British Study of Calvin, 1900-1940,” The Evangelical Quarterly 18.2 (April 1946): 123-131.

T.H.L. Parker, “Calvin’s Doctrine of Justification,” The Evangelical Quarterly 24.2 (April 1952): 101-107.

I also have this monograph available:

T.H.L. Parker, Supplementa Calviniana. An Account of the Manuscripts of Calvin’s Sermons Now in Course of Preparation. London: The Tyndale Press, 1962. Pbk. pp.23.

You can read Lee Gatiss’s obituary of Dr Parker on the Church Society website. The back-issues from the Churchman he mentions are available free of charge, together with hundreds of articles from The Evangelical Quarterly on the BiblicalStudies.org.uk website.

History of the Reformation by Thomas M. Lindsay

Thomas Lindsay’s comprehensive introduction to the European Reformation and Counter-Reformation is now available on-line for free download in PDF. These volumes are in the public domain and so can be freely copied and distributed.

Thomas Martin Lindsay [1843-1914], A History of the Reformation in Two Volumes, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1907. Hbk. pp.528+631.

DOWNLOAD VOLUME 1 IN PDF

DOWNLOAD VOLUME 2 IN PDF

Map Showing the Reformation and Counter-Reformation (1520-1580)
Map Showing the Reformation and Counter-Reformation (1520-1580)

Volume 2 has an interesting map hidden away in a pouch on the back cover. I have included images at varying resolutions on the main download page if you are interested.

Contents of Volume 1

Book 1: On the Eve of the Reformation

Chapter 1 – The Papacy
Chapter 2 – The Political Situation
Chapter 3 – The Renaisance
Chapter 4 – Social Conditions
Chapter 5 – Family and Popular Religious Life in the Decades Before the Reformation
Chapter 6 – Humanism and the Reformation

Book 2: The Reformation

Chapter 1 – Luther to the Beginning of the Controversy About Indulgences
Chapter 2 – From the Beginning of the Indulgence Controversy to the Diet of Worms
Chapter 3 – The Diet of Worms
Chaper 4 – From the Diet of Worms to the Close of the Peasant’s War
Chapter 5 – From the Diet of Speyer, 1526, to the Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Chaper 6 – The Organisation of the Lutheran Churches
Chapter 7 – The Lutheran Reformation Outside Germany
Chapter 8 – The Religious Principles Inpsiring the Reformation

Contents of Volume 2

Book 3: The Reformed Churches

Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – The Reformation in Switzerland Under Zwingli
Chapter 3 – The Reformation in Geneva Under Calvin
Chapter 4 – The Reformation in France
Chapter 5 – The Reformation in the Netherlands
Chapter 6 – The Reformation in Scotland

Book 4: The Reformation in England

Chapter 1 – The Church of Henry VIII
Chapter 2 – The Reformation Under Edward VI
Chapter 3 – The Reaction Under Mary
Chapter 4 – The Settlement Under Elizabeth

Book 5: Anabaptism and Socinianism

Chapter 1 – Revival of Medieval Anti-Ecclesiastical Movements
Chapter 2 – Anabaptism
Chapter 3 – Socinianism

Book 6: The Counter-Reformation

Chapter 1 – The Necessity of a Reformation of some sort of Universally Admitted
Chapter 2 – The Spanish Conception of a Reformation
Chapter 3 – Italian Liberal Roman Catholics and Their Conception of a Reformation
Chapter 4 – Ignatius Loyola and the Company of Jesus
Chapter 5 – The Council of Trent
Chapter 6 – The Inquisition and the Index